Volume 5 | Issue 1 | January-June 2020 | Page: 6-8 | Tomotaka Umimura, Satoshi Maki, Masao Koda, Seiji Ohtori
Authors : Tomotaka Umimura , Satoshi Maki , Masao Koda , Seiji Ohtori 
 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba 260-8677, Japan.
 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-8575 Japan.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Tomotaka Umimura,
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba 260-8677, Japan.
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Horner’s syndrome is caused by impairment of the sympathetic trunk, resulting in associated ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis. The cervical sympathetic trunk is sometimes damaged during an anterior approach to the lower cervical spine. We report two cases of Horner’s syndrome after anterior decompression and fusion for lower cervical spine pathologies.
Case Presentation: Case 1 was in a 58-year-old Japanese woman with a herniated C5-6 intervertebral disc presenting myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion of C5–C6. After the operation, miosis, and anhidrosis of the right face occurred and the symptoms continued for more than 15 years. Case 2 was in a 40-year-old Japanese woman whose diagnosis was flexion myelopathy with kyphosis at C5–C6 and canal stenosis, so she underwent anterior cervical C5-6 discectomy and fusion of C5–C6. Immediately after surgery, ptosis and miosis occurred, which lasted for 4 months.
Conclusion: Horner’s syndrome tends to occur during anterior cervical spine procedures, especially at the lower level, and the syndrome may be transient or irreversible. During an anterior approach to the lower cervical spine, taking care not to damage the sympathetic trunk is important to avoid this complication.
Keywords: Horner’s syndrome, Anterior cervical spine surgery, Complication.
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7. Ebraheim NA, Lu J, Yang H, Heck BE, Yeasting RA. Vulnerability of the sympathetic trunk during the anterior approach to the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 Jul 1;25(13):1603-6.
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|How to Cite this Article: Umimura T, Maki S, Koda M, Ohtori S | Horner’s Syndrome After Anterior Decompression And Fusion For Cervical Spine Pathologies: Report Of Two Cases | International Journal of Spine| January-June 2020; 5(1): 6-8 .
Volume 5 | Issue 1 | January-June 2020 | Page: 9-11 | Ong Kean Loong, Ng Bing Wui, Thuraikumar Kanniah, Wang Chee Seiang, Lim Sze Wei, Nor Azlin Zainal Abidin
Authors : Ong Kean Loong , Ng Bing Wui , Thuraikumar Kanniah , Wang Chee Seiang , Lim Sze Wei , Nor Azlin Zainal Abidin 
 Spine unit, Department of Orthopaedic, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia.
 Department of Orthopaedic, Hospital Segamat, Malaysia.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Ng Bing Wui,
Spine unit, Department of Orthopaedic, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia.
Email : email@example.com
Introduction: Spinous process osteotomy has been described as an alternative approach to allow better visualization during laminectomy and decompression of the spinal cord in cases of lumbar spinal stenosis.1 In this study, the authors describe the experience and early outcome of using this technique in treatment of Cauda Equina Syndrome.
Method: This is a retrospective study conducted between March 2018 until March 2019. Cases of Cauda Equina Syndrome treated with spinous process osteotomy, wide laminectomy, decompression and discectomy without instrumentation will be included in this study. Owestry Disability Index (ODI) and outcome of patients will be studied.
Result: 5 cases were found during the study period. All patients have shown marked improvement in terms of neurology and ODI score.
Conclusion: Spinous process osteotomy, wide laminectomy and discectomy can be used effectively for the treatment of Cauda Equina Syndrome. This study intend to be a pilot study in understanding the effectiveness and early outcome of patients treated with this approach. Larger prospective study is needed to provide meaningful comparison between this technique with the conventional approach used in treatment of Cauda Equina Syndrome.
Keywords: Cauda Equina Syndrome, Spinous process osteotomy, Posterior ligamentous complex.
1. Yong-Hing K, Kirkaldy-Willis WH. Osteotomy of lumbar spinous process to increase surgical exposure. Clinical orthopaedics and related research. 1978(134):218-20.
2. Dhatt S, Tahasildar N, Tripathy SK, et al. Outcome of spinal decompression in cauda equina syndrome presenting late in developing countries: case series of 50 cases. Eur Spine J 2011; 20:2235–2239.
3. GitelmanA,Hishmeh S, Morelli BN, Joseph SA Jr, Casden A, et al. (2008) Caudaequina syndrome: a comprehensive review.Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 37: 556-562
4. Waschke A, Hartmann C, Walter J, Dünisch P, Wahnschaff F, Kalff R, Ewald C. Denervation and atrophy of paraspinal muscles after open lumbar interbody fusion is associated with clinical outcome—electromyographic and CT-volumetric investigation of 30 patients. Acta neurochirurgica. 2014 Feb 1;156(2):235-44.
5. Kim DY, Lee SH, Chung SK, Lee HY. Comparison of multifidus muscle atrophy and trunk extension muscle strength: percutaneous versus open pedicle screw fixation. Spine. 2005 Jan 1;30(1):123-9.
6. Chen LH, Lai PL, Tai CL, Niu CC, Fu TS, Chen WJ. The effect of interspinous ligament integrity on adjacent segment instability after lumbar instrumentation and laminectomy–an experimental study in porcine model. Bio-medical materials and engineering. 2006 Jan 1;16(4):261-7.
7. Weiner BK, Fraser RD, Peterson M. Spinous process osteotomies to facilitate lumbar decompressive surgery. Spine. 1999 Jan 1;24(1):62-6.
8. Erland Hermansen, Gunnar Moen et al. Spinous Process Osteotomy to Facilitate the access to the spinal canal when decompressing the spinal canal in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Asian Spine Journal. 2014 Apr; 8(2): 138-144
9. Gun WL ,Myun WA Comparative study of two spinous process osteotomy techniques for posterior decompression surgery in lumbar spinal stenosis. European spine journal 2018
10. Namboothiri S, Gore S, Raja P (2016) Novel Surgical Technique for Discogenic Cauda Equina Syndrome – Transforaminal Intra Discal Access by Annulotomy outside Central Spinal Canal. J Spine S7:008.doi:10.4172/2165-7939.S7-008.
|How to Cite this Article: Loong OK, Wui NB, Kanniah T, Seiang WC, Wei LS, Abidin NAZ | Wide Open Laminectomy, Posterior Decompression and Discectomy in Lumbar Spine with Preservation of Posterior Ligamentous Complex in Cauda Equina Syndrome – Case Series, Early Outcome and Literature Review | International Journal of Spine| January-June 2020; 5(1): 9-11.
Volume 5 | Issue 1 | January-June 2020 | Page: 2-5 | Shailesh Hadgaonkar, Vivek Vincent, Pradhyumn Rathi, Parag Sancheti, Ashok Shyam
Authors : Shailesh Hadgaonkar , Vivek Vincent , Pradhyumn Rathi , Parag Sancheti , Ashok Shyam 
 Department of Spine, Sancheti Institute of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Pradhyumn Rathi,
Row House No.1, Shamail complex, Balaji nagar, Bhayander west Thane 401101
Introduction: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) are one of the commonest fractures seen in day to day practise. We present a unique case of failure of pedicle screw instrumentation in OVCF revised by sublaminar wiring (SLW).
Case report: A 70 year old lady with old operated osteorporotic fracture with sagittal imbalance and implant loosening was revised with single spinal rectangular loop and sublaminar wires (SLW).
Conclusion: Pedicle screws constructs for short segment fixation are rigid and biomechanically superior with greatest pull out strength, which mainly depends on bone mineral density. But, sublaminar wires should be considered far more superior in severely osteoporotic bone.
Keywords: Bone density, Bone wires, Compression, Fractures, Osteoporosis, Pedical screws, Spinal fractures.
1. Bullmann V, Schmoelz W, Richter M, et al. Revision of cannulated and perforated cement-augmented pedicle screws: a biomechanical study in human cadavers. Spine 2010 ; 35 : E932–9.
2. Chang K-W, Chen Y-Y, Lin C-C, et al. Apical Lordosating Osteotomy and Minimal Segment Fixation for the Treatment of Thoracic or Thoracolumbar Osteoporotic Kyphosis. Spine 2005 : 1674–1681.
3. Coe JD, Warden KE, Herzig MA, et al. Influence of bone mineral density on the fixation of thoracolumbar implants. A comparative study of transpedicular screws, laminar hooks, and spinous process wires. Spine 1990 ; 15 : 902–907.
4. Cresswell TR, Marshall PD, Smith RB. Mechanical stability of the AO internal spinal fixation system compared with that of the Hartshill rectangle and sublaminar wiring in the management of unstable burst fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Spine 1998 ; 23 : 111–115.
5. Faciszewski T, Winter RB, Lonstein JE, et al. The Surgical and Medical Perioperative Complications of Anterior Spinal Fusion Surgery in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine in Adults. Spine 1995 : 1592–1599.
6. Glassman SD, Alegre GM. Adult spinal deformity in the osteoporotic spine: options and pitfalls. Instr Course Lect 2003 ; 52 : 579–588.
7. Hirabayashi S, Kumano K, Kuroki T. Cotrel-Dubousset pedicle screw system for various spinal disorders. Merits and problems. Spine 1991 ; 16 : 1298–1304.
8. Hodge WA, DeWald RL. Splenic injury complicating the anterior thoracoabdominal surgical approach for scoliosis. A report of two cases. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1983 : 396–397.
9. Luque ER. Interpeduncular segmental fixation. Clin OrthopRelat Res 1986 : 54–57.
10. McAfee PC. Complications of anterior approaches to the thoracolumbar spine. Emphasis on Kaneda instrumentation. Clin OrthopRelat Res 1994 : 110–119.
11. Mesfin A, Komanski CB, Jay Khanna A. Failure of Cement-Augmented Pedicle Screws in the Osteoporotic Spine. Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation 2013 : 84–88.
12. Mohan AL, Das K. History of surgery for the correction of spinal deformity. Neurosurgical Focus 2003 : 1–5.
13. Moore DC, Maitra RS, Farjo LA, et al. Restoration of Pedicle Screw Fixation With an in Situ Setting Calcium Phosphate Cement. Spine 1997 : 1696–1705.
14. Nakai S, Zielke K. Chylothorax–a rare complication after anterior and posterior spinal correction. Report on six cases. Spine 1986 ; 11 : 830–833.
15. Parsons JR, Chokshi BV, Lee CK, et al. The biomechanical analysis of sublaminar wires and cables using luque segmental spinal instrumentation. Spine 1997 ; 22 : 267–273.
16. Patil S, Nene AM. Predictors of kyphotic deformity in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a radiological study. Eur Spine J 2014 ; 23 : 2737–2742.
17. Patil SS, Bhojaraj SY, Nene AM. Safety and efficacy of spinal loop rectangle and sublaminar wires for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture fixation. Asian J Neurosurg 2017 ; 12 : 436–440.
18. Weis JC, Betz RR, Clements DH 3rd, et al. Prevalence of perioperative complications after anterior spinal fusion for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. J Spinal Disord 1997 ; 10 : 371–375.
19. Wilber RG, Thompson GH, Shaffer JW, et al. Postoperative neurological deficits in segmental spinal instrumentation. A study using spinal cord monitoring. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984 ; 66 : 1178–1187.
20. Yuan HA, Garfin SR, Dickman CA, et al. A Historical Cohort Study of Pedicle Screw Fixation in Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral Spinal Fusion. Spine 1994 : 2279S–2296S.
|How to Cite this Article: Hadgaonkar S, Vincent V, Rathi P, Sancheti P, Shyam A | Revision spine with Hartshill and Sublaminar wiring in operated osteoporotic fracture- A case note| International Journal of Spine| January-June 2020; 5(1): 2-5..
Volume 5 | Issue 1 | January-June 2020 | Page: 12-15 | Md. Alauddin, A.H.M Tanvir Hasan Siddiquee, Md. Matiur Rahman, Malay Kumar Roy, Shahidul Islam khan, Md. Abdullah Al Mahmud
Authors : Md. Alauddin , A.H.M Tanvir Hasan Siddiquee , Md. Matiur Rahman , Malay Kumar Roy , Shahidul Islam khan , Md. Abdullah Al Mahmud 
 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rangpur Medical College, Rangpur, Bangladesh.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Md. Alauddin,
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Inadvertent Dural tear (DT) is a possible feared complication of spinal surgery. This is a prospective study of 430 consecutive patients with different types of lumber spinal surgery within the period of ‘January 2010 to December 2018′. Aim of the study is to evaluate incidence of dural tear (DT) with risk factors, compare between DT and non DT group with outcome. Incidence of dural tear were more on patients with older age, degenerative spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, re-operative surgery, multiple level surgery and with instrumentation. No significance sex difference found. Postoperative complications were more and outcome poor in DT group in comparison to non DT group. Every spine surgeon should be aware of possible dural tear and must know how to deal it.
Keywords: Dural Tear (DT); DT group; Non DT group.
1. SK Kalevski, NA Peev, MD and DG Haritonova. Incidental Dural Tears in Lumber Decompressive Surgery: incidence,causes, treatment, results. Asian JNeurosurg. 2010 janjun: 5(1) : 54-59, PMCID :PMC 3198662.
2. Hiroyuki Yoshira and Daisuke Yonevka.Incidental Dural Tears in spine surgery: analysis of a nationwide data base. Eur Spine J. 2014Feb; 23(2): 389-394.published online 2013 Nov9. PMCID: PMC 3906460.
3. SerdalAlbayrak ,SaetOzturk, Omer Ayden and NecatiUcler. Dural Tear: A Feared Complication of Lumber Discectomy. JTNEPUB_14065_online.pdf.
4. Yossi Smorgick, MD, Kevin C Baker PhD, Harry Herkowitz MD, David Montgomery, MD, Siddhorth A Badve MD, Casey Bachison MD, Steven Ericksen MD and Jeffrey S Fischgrund MD. Predisposing factors for Dural tear in patients undergoing Lumber Spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine22: 483-486, 2015.
5. S Wolff, W Kheirredene, G Roudhon. Surgical Dural Tears: Prevalence and updated management protocol based on 1359 lumber vertebrae interventions.Orthopaedic& Traumatology: Surgery & Research (2012)98, 879-886.
6. Sin AH, Caldito G, Smith D, Rashidi M, Willis B and Nanda A : Predictive factors for dural tears and cerebrospinal fluid leakage in patients undergoing lumber surgery.J Neurosurg Spine 5 : 224-227,2006.
7. Wang Jc, BohlmanHH,Riew KD : Dural tears secondary to operations in the lumber spine. Management and results after two year minimum follow up of eighty eight patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80: 1728-1732, 1998.
8. Deyo RA, Cherkin Dc, Loeser DJ, Bigos SJ, CiolMA: morbidity and mortality in association with operations on lumber spine. The influence of age,diagnosis and procedure. J Bone Joint Surg Am 74: 536-543, 1992.
9. KalevskiSK,Peev NA, Haritonov DG : Incidental dural tear tears in lumber decompressive surgery : incidence, causes, treatment, results. Asian J Neurosurg5 : 54-59, 2010.
10. Luca Proitti, Laura Scaramuzzo, Giusappo K Schiro, Sergio Sessa and Carlo A logroscino : Complications in Lumber Spine Surgery . A retrospective analysis. Indian J Orthop.2013 jul-aug; 47(4):340-345.
|How to Cite this Article: Alauddin M, Siddiquee AHMTH, Rahman MM, Roy MK, khan SI, Mahmud MAA | A prospective Study of Dural Tears among 430 cases of Lumber Spine Surgery | International Journal of Spine| January-June 2020; 5(1): 12-15.
Volume 4 | Issue 2 | July – Dec 2019 | Bhavesh R. Namsha, Udaygiri H. Meghnathi, Bhavik K. Ahir | Page 2-6
Authors : Bhavesh R. Namsha, Udaygiri H. Meghnathi, Bhavik K. Ahir 
 Department of Orthopaedics, SSG Hospital & Medical college Baroda, Gujarat, India
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Udaygiri H. Meghnathi,
Department of Orthopaedics, SSG Hospital & Medical college Baroda, Gujarat, India
Background: Low back pain is one of the most common reported problem affecting spine. The most common causes of Low back pain are herniated discs, lumbar canal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis. Over the past few decades, new treatments and technologies are being implemented to treat spinal disorders to improve patient outcome. The Main objective of study is to access clinical and Radiological result that is obtained with Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion as a treatment of severe back pain and degenerative disc diseases & to describe outcomes following Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery.
Methods: A Total of 15 patients who had back pain with degenerative disc disease were operated by TLIF through period from July 2017 to July 2018. Results were measured using the Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).
Results: Marked improvement in back pain according to VAS. Pre operative Average VAS Score was 7 and post operative average VAS score at 6 month follow up was 1.73. According to ODI score pre operative average ODI score was 66.53 and post operative 6 month ODI score was 18.53
Conclusion: From this study we have concluded that Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a safe and effective method of achieving spinal fusion in patients with degenerative disc disease & low grade spondylolisthesis and thereby reduces back pain and improves patient’s disability score
Keywords: transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion- TLIF, Visual Analogue Scale- VAS, Oswestry Disability Index- ODI, PEEK
|How to Cite this Article: Namsha B R, Meghnathi U H, Ahir B K. Result of Study Of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) Surgery. International Journal of Spine July-Dec 2019; 4(2): 2-6.
Volume 4 | Issue 2 | July – December 2019 | Vibhu Krishnan Viswanathan, Rishi Mugesh Kanna | Page 10-19
Authors : Vibhu Krishnan Viswanathan , Rishi Mugesh Kanna 
 Department of Orthopaedics, Ganga Hospital, Sai Baba Colony, Coimbatore, India.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Rishi Mugesh Kanna,
Spine Surgeon, Ganga Hospital, Sai Baba Colony, Coimbatore, India.
Thoraco-lumbar (TL) fractures are the most common sites for spinal injuries. The severity of these injuries can range from minor, un-displaced fractures amenable to conservative management to highly complex, unstable fractures requiring surgical interventions. There is still considerable ambiguity on various issues related to the management of these vertebral injuries. The current article addresses several crucial questions related to the management of TL spinal fractures. An elaborate search was performed on standard medical search engines including pubmed, google and medline databases using keywords “adult TL fractures”, adult thoracolumbar fractures”, “adult thoracolumbar injuries”, “adult thoracolumbar spinal injuries”, “spinal injuries” and “spinal fractures”. Based on this comprehensive narrative review, we have discussed the key consensus of the existing literature on various aspects of management of these fractures. Currently the most useful system for defining TL fractures is the AO classification system. The best initial imaging modality is computerize tomography (CT) scan, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the most useful modality in AO type B2 injuries. All patients with AO types B and C injuries require surgical intervention. The current literature is shifting in favor of posterior approach, in view of less complications and morbidity associated with these surgeries. The role of decompression in enhancing neurological recovery and the need for surgical fusion in addition to instrumentation in TL fractures are still controversial. The current literature is strongly against the use of high dose steroids in acute TL fractures with SCI.
Key words: Thoraco-lumbar fractures, AO Spine classification, Imaging modalities, Fracture fixation
|How to Cite this Article: Viswanathan V K, Kanna R M | Management of thoracolumbar fractures in
adults: Current algorithm | International Journal of Spine | July-December 2019; 4(2): 10-19.